Talks by Students and Others in Materials Engineering. Open to All.
Thesis Proposal- Advisor: John McCoy
Limitations of Maleimide Resins to Produce Diels-Alder Networks
Jones Hall 225
ID: 960 4823 8603)
The primary goal of the present work was to study the nature and effects of maleimide homopolymerization on thermosets crosslinked using Diels-Alder chemistry, a popularly studied dissociative chemistry among covalent adaptable networks (CANs). Dominate at relatively mild temperatures (20-70°C), the forward Diels-Alder (fDA) reaction proceeds as a [4+2] cycloaddition between a diene (furans) and dienophile (maleimides) to produce cycloadducts that undergo retro-DA (rDA) reaction at elevated temperatures to regenerate the precursors. Maleimide homopolymerization becomes observable at temperatures in excess of 110°C, which presents a challenge since the rDA reaction typically occurs around the same temperature range where it is feasible to (re-)process these DA materials. Several furan-maleimide thermosets were synthesized and studied to better understand the effect of and enumerate strategies to reduce the extent of network stiffening associated with the maleimide homopolymerization. The self-polymerization produces succinimide moieties that significantly change the thermomechanical behavior and preclude further flowability. This has implications for similar systems using maleimides because these systems are often studied for their novel intrinsic self-healing, recyclability, and 3D-printable qualities. Various strategies can be undertaken to reduce the effect of maleimide homopolymerization including the use of reduced maleimide content, using a free-radical inhibitor such as hydroquinone, and using a longer, more flexible prepolymer backbone. The preliminary work completed thus far was done using rheological and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods. Additional work included determination of the kinetic parameters of the fDA and rDA reactions using gel criteria.
Thesis Proposal- Advisor: Chelsey Hargather
Ab Initio Calculations of Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of High Entropy Alloys and Their Alloying Components
Jones Hall 227
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are a class of alloyed metals of recent scientific interest.
HEAs consist of five or more alloying components in roughly equiatomic proportions
that can form a single phase such as face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic
(BCC), or hexagonal close packed (HCP). They take on the name high entropy because
they exhibit unusually high entropy of mixing. The reason for the interest in HEAs
in the scientific community is that these alloys can display promising combinations
of materials properties. The properties can include better ductility and strength
relationship , lighter but stronger qualities , higher temperature resistance , improved
oxidation resistance , more resistance to corrosion , and superior fracture resistance
, among others. Because of these qualities, HEAS are candidate materials to replace
traditional alloys in the metallurgical industry. However, before HEAs can replace
traditional alloys, their mechanical properties including thermodynamic and elastic
properties must be understood. This thesis proposal explores elastic and thermodynamic
properties of body-centered cubic refractory high-entropy alloys through density functional
theory computation and modeling. By using Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP),
thermodynamic and elastic properties such as Debye temperature, Helmholtz Free energy,
entropy, enthalpy, heat capacity, thermal expansion, bulk modulus, shear modulus,
Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio are calculated as a function of temperature and
discussed in this thesis proposal. First, the computational method is compared to
well-known experimental values of pure systems Ag, Ni, Al,Ta, Ti, and V for procedural
validation and then used on BCC refractory HEAs including NbTaTiZr, HfNbTaTiZr, MoNbTaVW,
NbTaTiV, and AlNbTaTiV with 40 and 60 atom cells for the quarternary systems, and
50 and 75 atom cells for the quinary systems.
This work has modeled the entropy and enthalpy of the pure metals, Al and Nb to be in close agreement with NIST JANAF reported experimental values. This was done for validating the methodology of the thermodynamic modeling. Elastic properties such as elastic constants, bulk, shear and Young’s moduli for pure metals are also in close agreement with literature values. For example, the bulk modulus of Nb was found to be 170 GPa, in good agreement with a computational value of 172.3 GPa. The elastic constant C11 was calculated to be 119 compared to reported literature value of 116. After method validation this work applies the modeling process to more complicated systems such as RHEAs. Specifically, enthalpy and entropy properties of HEA systems AlNbTaTiV and MoNbTaVW were calculated and results discussed.
Thesis Proposal- Advisor: Paul Fuierer
DRY AEROSOL DEPOSITION OF MICROWAVE DIELECTRICS AND METALLIZATIONS
Jones Hall 106
Microwaves plays a huge role in modern communication. Microwave dielectric ceramics (MWDCs) used for modern microwave communication components such as resonators, waveguides, and antennas, require tunable dielectric constant (K) and high quality factor (Q).
Additive manufacturing (AM) is attractive to build passive components, filters, antennas, resonators, and custom circuits, but current technology and materials (with a range of dielectric constant, K, values) are limited. Dry aerosol deposition (DAD) can be considered as a fully AM approach. It is a novel kinetic spray process that can make fully dense, ultrafine grain ceramic coatings at room temperature. DAD offers densification of ceramics films on a variety of low-melting substrates at room temperature. The DAD process can produce robust thick films and low-profile 3D dielectric ceramic structures, potentially at a low cost. This project aims to prove DAD as a viable AM process for producing embedded low-profile 3D dielectric structures and to offer a new technology option for AM of high-K materials.
Preliminary work has been done with a MWDC called BaNd2Ti4O12 (BNT), a complex perovskite with a high-K, high-Q, and low temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf). Optimized process parameters were determined for a commercial, samarium-doped BNSmT powder through multiple experiments. DAD films were inspected for thickness, roughness, overall quality, and adhesion. BNSmT powder was sprayed on bulk copper and FR4 substrates. Satisfactory process parameters for DAD copper feedstock powder were also determined. BNSmT films were electroded with DAD copper for dielectric measurements. It has been demonstrated that co-manufacturing of dense MWDC along with copper metallization can be done in the same DAD apparatus.
Thesis Proposal- Advisor: Chelsey Hargather
First-Principles Study into High-Entropy Alloys and Forming Vacancies
Jones Hall 227
Diffusion is the main process of mass transfer within a material. Diffusion directly effects phase transformations, mechanical properties, and failure mechanisms of the material. Many materials scientists and others in the engineering community have been studying the diffusion within metals and their alloys. Common methods for experimentally calculating diffusion coefficients in an HEA is costly and time consuming. This sparked the need for a better way to compute diffusion coefficients within a metal alloy, leading to the application of computational techniques which use first-principles techniques. The calculations of diffusion related properties in metals systems with an impurity are well established, but research is lacking for the calculation of diffusion coefficients in more complicated systems. The next step in diffusion modeling using first-principles techniques is to use the established techniques on new ternary medium-entropy alloys (MEAs) or quinary high-entropy alloys (HEAs). MEAs are similar to HEAs with configurational entropy reduced to between R and 1.5*R where R is the gas constant. These MEAs are comprised of ternary systems and are used as initial information about the atoms to describe how they behave with increased configurational entropy. The goal of this thesis is to calculate values that contribute to diffusion coefficients in fcc MEAs and HEAs. Calculating diffusion-related properties in a MEA or HEA is difficult due to its random solid-solution properties. In random alloys, the local environment impacts the properties of a diffusing atom. To find the diffusion properties of a MEA or HEA, input values needed are, vacancy formation energy of each type of atom in the system and the migration energy of each type of atom in the system, among other variables. Vacancy formation energy (VFE) refers to the amount of energy required to remove an atom from its location within the lattice structure of a material. The VFE differs for each type of atom in a system depending on the concentration of each element and its local environment in the alloy. Calculating VFE is the focus of this thesis. In the present work, a method for finding the VFE in a high-entropy alloy is presented which takes into account effects from the varying local environment. To justify the methods of this work, the calculations are performed on a commonly studied ternary system, CoCrNi. After justifying the methods using a ternary system, the same methods are applied to a quinary system, CoCrFeMnNi. The exploration into these systems will include an analysis into the effects of magnetism within the ground state energy of these system by calculating the vacancy formation energy with and without magnetic inputs. These calculations were performed using the projector augmented wave (PAW) pseudo-potentials and the generalized gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional that is applied for solids as implemented by Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof. The energy values calculated in this work are computed for each type of atom, then compared their corresponding pure system energies and other computational calculations for ternary systems and quinary systems. The pure systems use a 36 atom supercell, the ternary system use a 72 atom supercell, while the quinary systems use a 125 atom supercell for their respective calculations. Future work beyond this thesis proposal will apply the VFE method to other, less-studied quinary systems such as CoCrCuFeNi. Calculating vacancy migration energy may also be explored and the importance for reporting differences between magnetic and non-magnetic systems will be determined.
PhD Defense- Advisor: Matthew Herman
Advanced Formulation of Highly Loaded Composites via Biomimetic Interfacial Reinforcement
Technological advancement is often inspired by nature, promoting scientists and engineers to continually attempt to develop new material systems based on materials found in nature. To strongly bind themselves to a variety of marine surfaces, mussels produce a strong adhesive protein that is high in dopamine chemical unit concentration. Dopamine is rich in catechol groups at the interface, which act as adhesion promoters. Synthetic dopamine, capable of undergoing self-polymerization under ambient conditions and becoming polydopamine (PDA), has been demonstrated to form controllable nanometer thickness films which are capable of promoting the adhesion between the filler and binder system in a highly loaded composite. The improvement of mechanical properties by promoting interfacial adhesion, as well as a uniform surface film to promote our formulation efforts, are of particular interest to our team. This work includes the investigation of PDA as it pertains to our experiments on tailoring crystal-binder adhesion properties in both plastic-bonded explosives and high-fidelity surrogates. Neutron reflectometry data will be presented to demonstrate the controllable nature of PDA film growth and the film’s structure. The effects of particle size and binder selection were studied in order to baseline our experiments to determine how much impact these variables can have and how they impact the final composite performance.
Paper Critique- Advisor: Michaelann Tatis
Biomechanical characterization of ex vivo human brain using ultrasound
shear wave spectroscopy
JONES HALL 225
The characterization of brain tissue is crucial to better understand neurological disorders. Mechanical characterization is an emerging tool in that field. The purpose of this work was to validate a transient ultrasound technique aimed at measuring dispersion of mechanical parameters of the brain tissue. The first part of this work was dedicated to the validation of that technique by comparing it with two proven rheology methods: a rotating plate rheometer, and a viscoelastic spectroscopy apparatus. Experiments were done on tissue mimicking gels. Results were compared on storage and loss modulus in the 20–100 Hz band. Our method was validated for the measurement of storage modulus dispersion, with some reserves on the measurement of loss modulus. The second part of this work was the measurement of the mechanical characteristics of ex vivo human white matter. We were able to measure the dispersion of the storage and loss modulus in the 20–100 Hz band, fitting the data with a custom power law model.
E. Nicolas, S. Call ́e, S. Nicolle, D. Mitton, and J. P. Remenieras, “Biomechanical
characterization of ex vivo human brain using ultrasound shear wave spectroscopy,” Ultrasonics, vol. 84, pp. 119–125, 2018